Review of Section 1 : Self-test
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1. Name the two components of the cardiovascular system.
2. How is the heart held in position?
3. What kind of tissue makes up the skeletal structure within the musculature of the heart?
4. What is the function of the chordae tendineae?
5. Name the four chambers of the heart?
6. Name the valves guarding the right heart, and describe their locations.
7. Name the valves guarding the left heart, and describe their locations.
8. What is the name of the double-walled sac that protects and covers the heart?
9. Name the three layers of the heart muscle.
10. Why is the heart called the “engine” of the cardiovascular system?
11. What is the cardiac output (CO) of an adult male at rest?
12. What is the “pulmonary” circulation? What is the “systemic” circulation?
13 . How do arteries differ from veins?
14. What exchanges occur at the capillary level?
1. The cardiovascular system includes the heart and blood vessels.
2. The heart is suspended from its base by great vessels and ligaments, anchored to the breastbone by ligaments, within a fibrous double-walled sac called the pericardium.
3. A fibrous framework supports the musculature of the heart
4. Chordae tendineae anchor both atrioventricular valves to mounds of papillary muscle in the walls of the ventricles.
5. The left and right atria sit atop the left and right ventricles.
6. The TRICUSPID valve guards the orifice between the right atrium and the right ventricle. The PULMONARY valve guards the orifice between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
7. The MITRAL valve guards the orifice between the left atrium and the left ventricle.
The AORTIC valve guards the orifice between the left ventricle and the aorta.
8 .The heart is encased in double-walled pericardial sac.
9. The three layers of heart muscle are the endocardium, myocardium, and epicardium.
10. The heart converts energy into mechanical activity and motion.
11. Cardiac output is the measure of the volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute. CO = volume pumped with each stroke x the heart rate. Stroke volume in the average man at rest is 80 ml per stroke…multiplied by a 70 beat per minute average, the CO is 5.6 Liters/minute (about 10 quarts).
12. Each half of your heart works as its own separate circulatory pump. The pulmonary circulation brings deoxygenated blood from the body to the lungs for oxygenation. The systemic circulation brings oxygenated blood from the lungs to the body tissues.
13. Arteries transport blood under high pressure, and have walls that are much more elastic than the veins. Arteries contain a muscular layer allowing the artery to pulsate in sync with the heartbeat. Veins are thinner and contain one-way valves.
14. In the capillary bed, oxygen and nutrients leave the blood and enter cells while carbon dioxide and metabolic waste products leave the cells and enter the bloodstream.