Review of Section 4 : Self-test
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1. What is an EKG used for?
2. What is the first wave recorded and what does it show?
3. Define SYSTOLE and DIASTOLE.
4. What does the T wave represent?
5. What events comprise a cardiac cycle?
6. Name the 6 limb leads.
7. Name the 6 chest leads.
8. What is a “standard” lead setup?
9. Name the sequence of five characteristics of the baseline ECG that are checked prior to beginning a stress test.
10. What is sinus tachycardia?
11. What is sinus bradycardia?
12. What is an ectopic focus?
1. Monitor a patient’s heart rate, evaluate the effects of disease or injury on heart function, evaluate pacemaker function, evaluate the response to medications, and obtain a baseline recording before, during, and after a medical procedure.
2. The first wave detected on the electrocardiogram is the P wave, at contraction of the atria.
3. Systole is the contraction phase, diastole is the filling phase of a cardiac chamber.
4. The T wave represents the repolarization of the ventricles.
5. A cardiac cycle represents atrial systole, ventricular systole (contraction), and the resting stage between beats.
6. I, II, III, AVR, AVL, AVF and meet to form six neatly intersecting reference lines which lie in a flat plane on the patient’s chest, the frontal plane.
7. The chest leads numbered from V1 through V6 move in successive steps from the patient’s right to his left side. V1 and V2 are over the right heart, V3 and V4 are over the septum, V5 and V6 are over the LV.
8. The right and left arm leads are placed on the forearms and the right and left leg leads are placed on the lower legs above the ankles.
9. rate, rhythm, axis, hypertrophy, infarction
10. Sinus Tachycardia is a steady rhythm that originates in the SA node and is greater than 100 bpm.
11. Sinus Bradycardia is a steady rhythm originating from the SA node, but is less than 60 bpm.
12. Ectopic foci occasionally emit an electrical impulse in non-emergency situations, especially in heart disease.