Review of Section 5 : Self-test
Please find the answers by scrolling to the bottom of the page.
1. About half of cardiovascular deaths are due to coronary artery disease. What is CAD?
2. What is “sudden cardiac death”?
3. What is myocardial ischemia?
4. What does “risk stratification” mean?
5. Name eight risk factors for coronary heart disease.
6. What are the three major clinical manifestations of ischemia?
7. What is Angina Pectoris?
8. What is myocardial infarction?
9. What are some complications following acute myocardial infarction?
10. What does a graded exercise test detect?
11. How is the patient’s target heart rate determined?
12. Name three reasons to terminate an exercise stress test?
13. What are some of the factors that define an electrically “positive” stress test?
14. Name four pharmacologic stress agents that may be used as alternatives to exercise treadmill testing.
15. Why should Persantine, Adenosine and Regadenoson be avoided in the asthmatic patient?
16. What action does the drug Aminophylline have on the vascular system?
17. What chemicals are released from dying myocardial cells?
1. A condition that reduces blood flow through the coronary arteries to the heart muscle by a pathological process, mainly coronary atherosclerosis.
2. 95% of people suffering cardiac arrest die within two hours after onset of symptoms and before medical care is reached.
3. Ischemia is defined as deficiency of blood supply.
4. The process of identifying patients at risk of having a future cardiac event.
5. Family history, Age and gender, Elevated serum cholesterol, Diabetes, Hypertension, Cigarette smoking, Obesity, Personality and Lifestyle.
6. Three major clinical manifestations of ischemia: angina pectoris (chest pain), myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
7. Cardiac chest pain: a clinical syndrome resulting from transient and reversible ischemia.
8. Myocardial infarction results from total coronary occlusion and loss of blood flow.
9. Arrhythmias, pulmonary edema, cardiac shock, ventricular aneurysm, mitral insufficiency, VSD and cardiac rupture.
10. A graded exercise test detects stress-induced alterations in cardiac electrical patterns that might signify cardiac ischemia.
11. A target heart rate is determined according to the patient’s age (220 – age= target) x 0.85
12. Anginal-type chest pain, Achieve 85% of pmhr, dizziness and/or lightheadedness, SOB or muscular fatigue,arrhythmias, ST-T changes, fall in blood pressure.
13. ST segment depression or elevation greater than 1 mm compared to a normal baseline, 2 mm or more increase in the ST-segment abnormality in patients with a baseline ST-segment depression.
14. IV Persantine, IV Dobutamine, IV Adenosine, IV Regadenoson
15. These drugs are not for use in the asthmatic patient due to exacerbation of bronchspasm.
16. Aminophylline is a vasoconstrictor.
17. CK, CK-MB, LDH, Troponin, Myoglobin